Tuesday, November 30, 2010

Getup! considers campaigning against ban against overseas commercial surrogacy

Community activist group Getup! is considering campaigning against the ban (now in Qld and the ACT and soon to be in NSW) on Aussies accessing overseas commercial surrogacy clinics. This is what the original posting said:

On 11 November 2010, the NSW Parliament passed legislation banning NSW residents from engaging in commercial surrogacy arrangements overseas.
The effect of this legislation is that consenting residents of NSW cannot travel to another country and participate in legal activities with other consenting adults.
The argument for the ban is based on the "best interests of the children born through commercial surrogacy", while no reputable evidence that it is not in the child's best interests or the children are disadvantaged in anyway has been presented.
Additionally, it is argued that women are exploited in commercial surrogacy arrangement, while the case of the California Supreme Court Johnson v Calvert (1993) in the USA stated:
"The argument that a woman cannot knowingly and intelligently agree to gestate and deliver a baby for intending parents carried overtones of the reasoning that for centuries prevented women from attaining equal economic rights and professional status under law. To resurrect this view is both to foreclose a personal and economic choice on the part of the surrogate mother, and to deny intending parents what may be their only means of procreating a child of their own genetic stock"
The NSW Government must remove this ban.

Various respondents have said that the laws are "archaic", "cruel", "ill-thought", "highly discriminatory", "implicitly racist", "preposterous", "ridiculous" and "a major step backwards".
For the thread, click here.

Sunday, November 28, 2010

NSW: commercial surrogacy ban to extend to overseas clinics

NSW has passed new surrogacy laws which now criminalise those who undertake commercial surrogacy arrangements overseas, such as in California and India. Commercial surrogacy remains illegal in NSW, but until these laws come into force, it has been perfectly legal for NSW residents to undertake commercial surrogacy overseas.

The NSW Surrogacy Act which makes these changes is likely to take effect possibly as soon as December.

NSW copies similar provisions in Qld and the ACT. The other states and territories do not have such a ban.

The section of the new NSW Surrogacy Act is section 11:

11 Geographical nexus for offences
(1) This section applies for the purposes of, and without limiting, Part 1A
of the Crimes Act 1900.
(2) The necessary geographical nexus exists between the State and an
offence against this Division if the offence is committed by a person
ordinarily resident or domiciled in the State.
Note. Section 10C of the Crimes Act 1900 also provides that a geographical
nexus exists between the State and an offence if the offence is committed
wholly or partly in the State or has an effect in the State.

In other words, if you live in Sydney, for example, and you then go to an Indian or Californian surrogacy clinic and enter into a commercial surrogacy arrangement, you commit an offence in NSW. The offence section is here:

8 Commercial surrogacy arrangements prohibited
A person must not enter into, or offer to enter into, a commercial
surrogacy arrangement.
Maximum penalty: 2,500 penalty units, in the case of a corporation, or
1,000 penalty units or imprisonment for 2 years (or both), in any other

Entering into might happen overseas. Offering to enter into might happen in NSW. A person who has already entered into a commercial surrogacy arrangement overseas before the new laws take effect does not commit an offence under this Act as they will have already have entered into the arrangement. Those contemplating entering into commercial surrogacy arrangements overseas should get good legal advice.

The overseas element was added as a result of an amendment by Linda Burney, the Minister for Community Services, who said:

I draw members' attention to the Queensland surrogacy legislation passed earlier this year. In Queensland it is not lawful to enter a commercial arrangement and it is not possible to get around that by going overseas and entering a commercial arrangement in another country. The bill that is currently before us does not specify that the prohibition on New South Wales citizens entering into commercial surrogacy applies whether they do this in New South Wales or in any other jurisdiction. I will have more to say about that as the debate goes on.

My amendment will rectify that situation and in so doing will give effect to the policy position agreed to by all States and Territories in Australia that commercial surrogacy is not supported in this country. We all know that the desire to be a parent is very powerful. That instinct is an important part of humanity's survival. However, in this brave new world we must protect everybody involved, including the surrogate mother. People have had many discussions about and have put a great deal of effort into the crafting of this bill. I also recognise that people will go to great lengths to be in a position to love and nurture a child. I acknowledge the sadness of people who cannot realise that dream. However, gaining access to children by circumventing local laws and travelling overseas to engage the services of private clinics and then bring the children back to Australia is not a practice that we as the lawmakers of this State should encourage. The Standing Committee of Attorneys-General was clear on that issue in its 2009 discussion paper.

Commercial surrogacy provides a service to intending parents and in so doing it places their needs above the needs of the child. Commercial surrogacy is a growth industry and most overseas arrangements do not provide all the safeguards set out in this bill. The Attorney General said in his second reading speech in the other place that the Government believes that the children resulting from surrogacy arrangements should have access to information about the circumstances of their birth and their genetic history. That is important for a child's psychological wellbeing and their sense of identity and it allows them to avoid what he calls genealogical bewilderment. That term struck me very deeply. The Attorney General is correct: There is nothing more important than to know who you are and where you come from. It is a fundamental human desire and a right.

This is what the NSW Attorney-General John Hatzistergos had to say about this issue:

The first amendment adds a new section that extends the geographical nexus of offences in division 2 of part 2 of the bill so that the relevant relationship exists if the offence is committed by a person ordinarily resident or domiciled in New South Wales. The effect is that if a person ordinarily resident or domiciled in New South Wales commits the offence outside of New South Wales territory, the offence is an offence against the law of this State. On the extraterritoriality of offences, Professor Anne Twomey's The Constitution of New South Wales states:
      Early cases … suggested that the State's legislative powers were confined to the area of their territory and could not have an extraterritorial operation. This doctrine … later developed so that a law could have an extra-territorial application as long as it was a law for "peace, order and good government" of the relevant jurisdiction. There must be a connection between the law and the territory in which it was enacted … The relationship may be presence, residence or domicile … "or even remoter connections".

It is rare for New South Wales to pass laws criminalising conduct that essentially occurred outside the State. However, the reality of surrogacy is that the prohibitions on commercial surrogacy in New South Wales can be and are circumvented by people going to countries that allow it. The Standing Committee of Attorneys-General, as well as various speakers in this and the other place, reconfirmed the position that commercial surrogacy is not in the best interests of children born out of these arrangements. Extending the offences in the bill in this way is consistent with provisions already in place in Queensland and the Australian Capital Territory. It confirms this Parliament's opposition to commercial surrogacy and prevents such arrangements from being used to circumvent our prohibition on it. I support the amendment to the bill.

SCAG's 15 point surrogacy plan

The mysterious 15 point plan by the nation's Attorneys-Generals about consistent laws to do with surrogacy have now been made available. The unfortunately named SCAG (Standing Committee of Attorneys General) had previously declined to release the plan. The communique from the most recent meeting on  7 May 2010 meeting merely states: 

Ministers today considered a set of draft model provisions based on the 15
principles for surrogacy laws endorsed in their November 2009 meeting.
Ministers agreed to refer the draft model provisions to Health and Community
Services Ministers for their consideration.

This is a repeat of what they said a year ago.

Here is the draft 15 point plan (with my comments under some points):

1. A court may grant a parentage order where the court is satisfied a surrogacy arrangement was entered into by the surrogate mother, her partner (if any) and the intended parents prior to conception

[Comment: There is nothing in the draft that prohibits commercial surrogacy. It would be helpful that conception is defined. In Queensland it is not, and there has been great concern amongsts doctors and clients about whether use of an embryo for implantation in the surrogate means that conception occurred at the time of the fertilisation of the egg, and therefore a parentage order cannot be obtained. The matter is yet to be ruled on by the court.]

2. A court may grant a parentage order where the court is satisfied all parties have undergone counselling with an accredited counsellor in relation to the surrogacy arrangement

3. A court may grant a parentage order where the court is satisfied all parties have received independent legal advice about the surrogacy arrangement prior to entering the arrangement

4. A court may grant a parentage order where an application was made to the court at least 21 days, but not more than six months after the birth

5. The intended parents must reside in the jurisdiction in which the application is made

[Comment: This is silly. This is just rail gauges all over again. All that should be required is that the intended parents reside in Australia. As an example, under this scheme, intended parents in Albury, who might want to go to the Canberra Fertility Clinic, have to go through the requirements of that clinic's ethics committee before proceedings, but then have to apply in NSW for the Parentage Order and then have to register that in the ACT (assuming the child was born in the ACT).]

6. All parties to the surrogacy arrangement must give informed consent to the granting of a parentage order

7. The child must be living with the intended parents at the time the application is heard

8. A court may grant a parentage order where the court is satisfied granting the order is in the best interests of the child

9. A court may grant a parentage order where certain requirements set out in the model provisions are not met if the court is, despite this, satisfied granting the order is in the best interests of the child. The ability of the court to waive requirements is subject to mandatory requirements set out in legislation

10. A court may take into account any other matter it considers relevant when determining whether to grant a parentage order

11. A court may grant a parentage order to parents who are now lawfully raising children under the age of 18 years conceived through surrogacy if:
(a) the court is satisfied that a surrogacy arrangement was entered into prior to conception
(b) the court is satisfied the surrogacy arrangement was not a commercial arrangement
(c) all parties consent to the granting of the order
(d) it is in the best interests of the child
In determining such an application the court will be required to take into account the views of the child, where appropriate.

[Comment: Yes, but. The Attorneys say that the children should be included, but those born before a cutoff period before the legislation was passed miss out. In Queensland it is 2 years, and South Australia (when those laws take effect) 10 years. ]

12. After a parentage order is granted a new birth certificate can be applied for and will resemble an ordinary birth certificate recording only the names of the legal parents.

13. The original birth record would still exist and the child would be able to obtain both records in defined circumstances

14. The jurisdiction where the original birth certificate was issued will provide for the mutual recognition of a parentage order granted in another jurisdiction by provision of a new birth certificate. Alternately, the jurisdiction where the original birth certificate was issued should cancel the birth certificate and the jurisdiction where the parentage order was granted should issue a new birth certificate.

15. The surrogate mother will be able to enforce an arrangement for the reimbursement of reasonable expenses.

Thanks to David Taylor, Qld convenor of the Gay Dads Alliance for bringing this to my attention.

Going to the Family Court after the commercial surrogacy clinic

Intending parents of children born overseas through a commercial surrogacy arrangement or agreement, particularly gay or lesbian couples, are keen to know the hurdles of having the child recognised as theirs. Here is the short version.

Disclaimer: Every case is different! Those Australians entering into commercial surrogacy arrangements or agreements should get good Australian legal advice before entering into the arrangement. They may be committing an offence. Those Australians who have entered into commercial surrogacy arrangements or agreements overseas should get good Australian legal advice as soon as possible. They may have committed an offence. I have advised clients in several states and overseas about surrogacy. For a guide about the differences between the states and territories, try here or here.

Step 1: I have entered into the commercial surrogacy agreement/arrangement

Before step 1, if you are from Qld or the ACT [and soon NSW], don't- it is an offence in those jurisdictions to do.

The critical issue is to ensure that the child is an Australian citizen by descent. Engaging a reputable migration agent is essential. If the child is an Australian citizen by descent, it can migrate here, if not, it cannot. Both the Australian High Commission in New Delhi and the Australian Embassy in Washington DC require DNA proof- but a recent decision has made plain that even without DNA you might be a parent and the child a citizen by descent.

Step 2: The child is born: is the child legally yours?

Evidently, if the answer is no, then the child cannot leave that country. You will need to get advice, well in advance, from a lawyer in that country who knows what they are doing.

Step 3: Telling the Department of Immigration and Citizenship

You will need to get advice about whether or not you tell the Department about the surrogacy status of the child. The expectation of the Department is that you say. The four questions to get advice about are:

  • do I have a legal obligation to tell?
  • if I don't say, and my child comes to Australia, will/can/what risk is there in my child being stripped of Australian citizenship later on?
  • if I do say, what risk is there that I will be referred to police in Qld, ACT and soon to be NSW for prosecution? [So that it is clear beyond any doubt: I do not encourage anyone to commit any offence. Engaging a commercial surrogacy clinic overseas is an offence in Qld and the ACT and shortly NSW.]
  • if I am prosecuted, what risk is there in the child being taken away from me by the State?
Step 4: How is the child legally recognised as mine?

There are three options, none of which are pretty:

  1. Do nothing. Your partner may be legally recognised as mum or dad, but you are not. This may not cause troubles for you, except possibly in dealing with schools and doctors. It may be worse: if you and your partner split up, and you take your partner to the Family Court, the Family Court may not believe your story, and prevent you from seeing the child.
  2. Adopt. Three potential problems: 
    • is same sex adoption legal in your jurisdiction? Click here for my State by State guide. Adoption by those in a same sex relationship is legal in NSW, WA, ACT and in limited circumstances in Tasmania.
    • if you can adopt in your jurisdiction, did you commit an offence entering into the commercial surrogacy arrangement (which you would have done in the ACT, and may have done in NSW)? If so, assume that the adoption cannot proceed and that you will be reported to police.
    • in any case, is the bureaucracy of the State agency going to prevent you adopting, given that the child was born overseas?
  3. Get a parenting order from the Family Court. It's not cheap. It is usually the best option. There is a risk for those in Qld, the ACT and soon NSW that the judge could report you to police. Get advice about the reality of this risk.  In two reported cases (from Victoria), Re Mark and Cadet and Scribe it was illegal to have entered into surrogacy in Victoria. The judge did not report the parties to the Victorian police. Her priority was on the best interests of the child. For a summary of how the Family Court has decided these and other surrogacy cases, click here. Depending on what happened in the legal process overseas, the surrogate mother may need to be served with a copy of any court application. This will mean having to give her a copy of the the court documents. This may mean going through the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade and the relevant government overseas, depending on the country, and may mean translation into the language of the surrogate by an expert translator.

Australian Adoption Guidelines: State by State

Updated as of 28 November, 2010.

Every State and Territory has a different set of rules as to who can adopt. This guide does not cover overseas adoptions or adoptions by expatriate Australians.

New South Wales

Legislation: Adoptions Act 2000

The people who can adopt are:

  • a couple who have been married for two years;
  • a heterosexual or homosexual de facto couple, who have been together for two years;
  • singles- if either they are at least 21, plus at least 18 years older than the child or in the special circumstances of the case the Supreme Court gives permission.
The Supreme Court cannot grant permission to one person to adopt if they have a spouse- husband or wive or heterosexual or homosexual de facto relationship, and the spouse gives permission.

An adoption by a relative can occur, but only if the Supreme Court is satisfied that it is preferable to any other action, which may be a considerable hurdle.

An adoption by a step-parent can occur, but only if leave to adopt has occurred under the Family Law Act and the child is at least 5, and the consent of the parent is given or dispensed with, and only if the Supreme Court is satisfied that it is preferable to any other action.

Although recommendations by a NSW Parliamentary Committee to allow same-sex adoptions were rejected by the State Government, following both sides being allowed a conscience vote, the Adoptions Act was amended, taking effect on 15 September, 2010. Both the Premier Kristina Keneally and the Opposition Leader Barry O'Farrell spoke in favour of the bill. Adoption agencies can opt out of providing adoptions for same sex couples if they so wish, which overcomes (for adoptions) a court case  involving the Uniting Church and gay would be fostercarers.

Australian Capital Territory

Legislation: Adoptions Act 1993

People who can adopt:
  • a couple, including a married couple, living together for 3 years.
There is a strong preference in the Adoptions Act 1993 to make guardianship and custody orders in matters involving stepparents and relatives rather than adoption orders.

Same sex couples can adopt.


Legislation: Adoptions Act 1984

People who can adopt:

  • a married or heterosexual couple who have been together for 2 years;
  • a couple in an Aboriginal traditional marriage who have been together for 2 years.
  • single people in special circumstances.
Same sex couples cannot adopt. The Victorian Law Reform Commission has recommended that this be changed, but it has not.


Legislation: Adoptions Act 1988

People who can adopt:
  • married couples, and people in de facto relationships, who have been together 3 years.
  • single people in special circumstances.
Qualifier: De facto couples, including same sex couples can adopt, but only if they have a registered relationship. Only married couples can adopt a child that is not a stepchild or relative (subject to the special circumstances for single people).

South Australia

Legislation: Adoption Act 1988

People who can adopt:
  • couples who have been married for 5 years;
  • couples in heterosexual de facto relationships for 5 years;
  • single people in special circumstances.
Same sex couples cannot adopt.

Western Australia

Legislation: Adoption Act 1994

People who can adopt:

  • is a step-parent of the child and has been married to, or in a de facto relationship with, a parent of the child for at least 3 years;
  • is a carer of the child; 
  •  has, under the Adoption Act, had the child placed in his or her care with a view to the child’s adoption by him or her.
Same sex couples are able to adopt, due to the definition of de facto relationship. The country's only documented same sex adoption occurred in WA.

Northern Territory

Legislation: Adoption of Children Act

People who can adopt:
  • a couple who have been married for 2 years.
  • a couple in an Aboriginal traditional marriage of  2 years.
  • a husband or wife of a parent of the child;
  • a relative of the child.
  • single people in exceptional circumstances.
De facto (unless in an Aboriginal traditional marriage) and same sex couples cannot adopt.


Legislation: Adoption Act 2009

People who can adopt:
  • a couple who have been married for 2 years.
  • a heterosexual de facto couple who have been together for 2 years.
  • a step-parent when the couple have been married or in a heterosexual de facto relationship for 3 years and the child has lived with them over that time;
  • the child is between 5 and 17 years old (or there is enough time between 17 and 18 to complete the process).
Same sex couples and single people cannot adopt. Premier Anna Bligh and the Government made plain that same sex couples need not apply. The previous 1964 Act preserved the inherent jurisdiction of the Supreme Court which may have allowed these adoptions. It is not known whether that inherent jurisdiction remains.

Commercial surrogacy: updated State by State guide

This guide is accurate as of 28 November, 2010.

If you are contemplating entering into, or have entered into a commercial surrogacy arrangement or agreement, get good legal advice- NOW. You may be or have committed a criminal offence. 
I have provided advice to clients in several states and overseas about commercial surrogacy.
Commercial surrogacy is illegal in Australia, except for the Northern Territory. In the NT, commercial surrogacy is in effect banned because the doctors providing IVF treatment are from Adelaide, and subject to South Australian licensing and laws.

MP's have generally taken the view that commercial surrogacy involves the exploitation of women, especially those from the third world, and also involves the treatment of children as commodities.

The reality however is that Australians have used and will continue to use overseas commercial surrogacy clinics. For example, as seen in two Family Court cases, Victorian gay couples in Re Mark and Cadet and Scribe, went to the US, undertook commercial surrogacy and ended up with orders for the parenting of the children from the Family Court. In both cases when the men undertook the arrangements, it was an offence for them to undertake commercial surrogacy both in Victoria and overseas.

Each of the States and Territories have different rules about their residents having children through overseas commercial clinics.


Law: Surrogacy Act 2010
Status: Commercial surrogacy banned anywhere in the world.

It is a criminal offence for any commercial surrogacy arrangement to be entered into in Queensland. It is also a criminal offence for a person ordinarily resident in Queensland to enter into a commercial surrogacy arrangement anywhere in the world. This Act in effect repeats the repealed Surrogate Parenthood Act 1988[PDF]. It has been an offence since 1988 to engage in commercial surrogacy in Queensland or for someone ordinarily resident in Queensland to engage in surrogacy somewhere else, including through overseas clinics.

The Surrogacy Act 2010 bans commercial surrogacy both in Queensland and by those ordinarily resident  in Queensland anywhere in the world. It does this by:
-banning advertisements
-banning commercial surrogacy
-payment (other than for the surrogate's reasonable surrogacy costs)
-providing technical and medical assistance if the person knows the other person is, or intends to be, a party to a commercial surrogacy arrangement; and  the person provides the service with the intention of assisting the other person to become pregnant for the purpose of the arrangement. (It doesn't apply if the surrogate is already pregnant).

New South Wales

Legislation: Assisted Reproductive Technology Act 2007

Status: Commercial surrogacy banned only in NSW. Soon: banned anywhere in the world.

Commercial surrogacy is banned in NSW. NSW residents are currently not banned from going to overseas commercial surrogacy clinics and entering into contracts or arrangements there.

The Act makes it an offence to:

-enter into a commercial surrogacy agreement
-arrange a commercial surrogacy agreement
-accept any benefit under a commercial surrogacy agreement
-advertise for commercial surrogacy

Commercial surrogacy agreements are void.

Going, going, gone...

NSW has now passed the Surrogacy Act 2010. This Act is due to be proclaimed on a date to be fixed, but in all likelihood before Christmas. Any day now. When this Act comes into effect, it will be an offence for those who reside in or are domiciled in NSW from engaging in acts of commercial surrogacy, wherever that might be, whether in Australia or overseas.

The passage of the bill has created a firestorm of protest, but protests are unlikely to make any difference, at least in the short term. 

"Residence" and "domicile" are different legal concepts. Residence is pretty clear- that you live in the location. Domicile is a wider concept. In law there are essentially two types of domicile. One is a domicile of choice: a person has chosen to be a permanent resident somewhere, for example in NSW. The other is domicile of origin: a person was born in NSW, and has not adopted a domicile of choice, because for example they travel around the world, or they have abandoned their domicile of choice, and keep their domicile of origin. Such a person, who does not live in NSW, will be caught up in this legislation. The Wikipedia article on domicile is a useful starting point.

If in doubt, get advice. I am happy to provide advice to those in NSW about the effect of the changes.

Australian Capital Territory

Legislation: Parentage Act 2004

Status: Commercial surrogacy banned anywhere in the world.

Commercial surrogacy is banned in the ACT. The law does this by:
-banning commercial substitute parentage agreements
-banning the advertising for surrogacy
-banning the procuring of commercial substitute parentage agreements
-banning the facilitation of pregnancy

It is an offence for ACT residents to engage in any of these anywhere in the world "if, when the offence is committed, the person who commits the offence is ordinarily resident in the ACT".

Legislation: Assisted Reproductive Treatment Act 2008

Status: Commercial surrogacy banned only in Victoria.

Commercial surrogacy including overseas commercial surrogacy was banned under the Infertility Treatment Act 1995 [PDF]. That Act was repealed on 1 January 2010, with the coming into force of the Assisted Reproductive Treatment Act 2008.

The 2008 Act bans commercial surrogacy in Victoria, but does not ban Victorians from accessing overseas commercial surrogacy clinics.

Law: Surrogacy Contract Acts 1993

Status: Commercial surrogacy banned only in Tasmania.

Commercial surrogacy is banned. The Act does not ban Tasmanians from accessing overseas commercial surrogacy clinics.

South Australia
Legislation: Family Relationships Act 1975

Status: Commercial surrogacy banned only in South Australia.

Commercial surrogacy is banned, including payment and advertising for surrogacy. There is no restriction on South Australians attending overseas commercial surrogacy clinics.

The Statutes Amendment (Surrogacy) Act 2009 (which in turn has been amended) is still waiting to commence.  It amends the 1975 Act. Commercial surrogacy remains banned. There is no restriction on South Australians attending overseas commercial surrogacy clinics.

Western Australia 2008
Legislation: Surrogacy Act 2008

Status: Commercial surrogacy banned only in WA. However,  WA regulator threatened with prosecution those mentioning overseas commercial surrogacy clinics.

Commercial surrogacy is banned, including advertising or making the arrangement.

It is an offence to facilitate a commercial surrogacy arrangement:

"(1)A person who provides a service knowing that the service is to facilitate a surrogacy arrangement that is for reward commits a crime except in the circumstances described in subsection (2).
(2) It is not an offence against subsection (1) if the service is a health service provided to the birth mother after she has become pregnant. "

The nature of this offence extends beyond health professionals, and might include, for example, brokers for overseas commercial surrogacy clinics.

The ban on accessing commercial surrogacy does not extend to attending overseas commercial surrogacy clinics.

Northern Territory

Status: Commercial surrogacy legal (but non-existent). Legal for Territorians to access overseas commercial surrogacy clinics.

There is no legislation covering NT citizens. It is therefore not an offence for a Territorian to go to commercial surrogacy clinics.There are no such clinics in the NT. It is not an offence for a Territorian to go to an overseas commercial surrogacy clinic.

Sunday, November 21, 2010

American surrogacy expert speaking at Sydney seminar

Dr Kim Bergman
Dr Kim Bergman, the co-owner of the world's oldest and largest surrogacy clinic, Growing Generations, will be speaking at a surrogacy seminar to be held in Sydney on 14 December, 2010.

As a co-owner of Growing Generations, based in LA, Dr Bergman has had a strong commitment toward LGBTI clients.  Growing Generations has received many awards for its role in supporting the LGBTI community.

A psychologist since 1992 , Dr Bergman is the founder of Fertility Counseling Services, Inc., providing all aspects of psychological services to individuals and agencies in the field of fertility and assisted reproduction. Dr Bergman is the current co-chair of the Family Equality Council, the only US non- profit organisation solely dedicated to equality for LGBTQ parents and their families, through advocacy, education and support. Dr Bergman's professional affiliations include the American Psychological Association, Los Angeles County Psychological Association, and the American Society for Reproductive Medicine.

Dr Bergman and her partner of 25 years have two daughters, ages 12 and 10. Born in Los Angeles,  Dr. Bergman completed her Bachelor of Arts degree in psychology at UCLA. She then went on to obtain both her Master's and her Doctoral degrees in psychology at the California School of Professional Psychology Los Angeles.

Dr Bergman will be in Sydney from 10-15 December with the seminar the highlight. The seminar, hosted by Gay Dads NSW, will be particularly focussed on the NSW Surrogacy Act 2010 and what impact it will have on those in NSW accessing overseas commercial surrogacy clinics. This is particularly important given that the Act, which will make it illegal for NSW residents to access overseas commercial surrogacy clinics for the first time,  might take effect as soon as December.

Other speakers at the seminar will be:

 Details of the seminar:

  • Host: Gay Dads NSW
  • Place: Aurora Room, 2010 office, 45 Bedford St, Newtown
  • Date: Tuesday 14 December, 2010
  • Time: 7pm
  • Cost: free

NSW: Attorney-General's speech

Here is the speech by the NSW Attorney-General John Hatzistergos as to the Surrogacy Act:

The Hon. JOHN HATZISTERGOS (Attorney General, Minister for Citizenship, Minister for Regulatory Reform,
and Vice-President of the Executive Council) [5.03 p.m.]: I move:
That this bill be now read a second time.
In May this year I announced the Government's intention to introduce new surrogacy laws for New South Wales,
to provide certainty for the parties to surrogacy arrangements and to protect the interests of children born as a
result of such arrangements. This bill introduces, amongst other things, a comprehensive scheme for new
parentage orders, which may be granted by the Supreme Court to transfer parentage in surrogacy situations,
provided certain safeguards are observed. The bill is subject to a guiding principle—that the best interests of
children born as a result of surrogacy arrangements are paramount.
By creating the new parentage orders, the bill implements a recommendation of the Legislative Council Standing
Committee on Law and Justice, which tabled its report "Legislation on Altruistic Surrogacy in New South Wales"
in May 2009. This reform also draws on the work of the Standing Committee of Attorneys-General, which in
March 2008 agreed to develop a national model for the legal recognition of parentage achieved by surrogacy
arrangements. In November 2009 the Standing Committee of Attorneys-General adopted 15 principles as the
basis for drafting model provisions to regulate surrogacy, and the committee then discussed draft provisions at
its meeting in May.
The work of the Legislative Council Standing Committee on Law and Justice and the Standing Committee of
Attorneys-General followed extensive consultation. The Legislative Council Standing Committee on Law and
Justice advertised a call for submissions in August 2008 and it received 40 submissions from government
agencies, fertility clinics, a lawyer and a psychologist with experience facilitating surrogacy arrangements,
community groups, religious and ethics organisations, academics and private citizens, including parents of
children born through surrogacy arrangements. It also held public hearings in November 2008 and March 2009
where it heard from a range of stakeholders.
The work on this issue by the Standing Committee of Attorneys-General was informed by responses to a
consultation paper released for public comment in January 2009. In all, 109 submissions were received from a
variety of government bodies, institutions, and individuals. The preparation of this bill has drawn on the results of
this consultation, and further consultation that has been carried out with NSW Health, the Department of
Community Services, the Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages, and the Supreme Court of New South
Currently, in most cases, the Status of Children Act 1996 has the effect that a child's legal parents are its birth
parents. That is, if a woman gives birth to a child, she and her husband or de facto partner, if any, are usually
presumed to be the parents. This means that people who intend to become parents under a surrogacy
arrangement, and who may in fact be raising the child, can face significant legal obstacles in obtaining full
parental rights. They may, in a practical and emotional sense, be parenting the child, but may have trouble, for
example, obtaining a passport for the child, enrolling the child in school, or accessing benefits to which a legal
parent would be entitled.
Part 3 of this bill provides a framework for the Supreme Court to grant orders that would transfer full legal
parentage of children from their birth parent, or birth parents, to the intended parents under a surrogacy
arrangement. This will come as a relief to families who would otherwise have had to turn to adoption processes,
which can be a long and laborious process, or parental responsibility orders from the Family Court, which are not
permanent and do not apply when children reach adulthood. The new orders will provide relief and certainty for
those who seek to become parents under surrogacy arrangements and who have, to date, had to deal with the
existing legal schemes that are not designed for surrogacy situations.
These orders will also advance the best interests of children. At present, children born of surrogacy
arrangements may live with their intended parents, as agreed by the parties, but without the benefit of full
parentage rights for those who care for them. The new parentage orders will give the intended parents the full
legal capacity to make decisions in the child's interests. Clause 15 provides that intended parents may apply for
a parentage order between 30 days and six months after the child's birth. The 30-day time limit operates as a
cooling-off period for the birth mother, who will have the opportunity to carefully consider consenting to the
parentage order after the birth of the child. The upper time limit of six months aims to provide certainty to the
parties, and to encourage a secure and stable living environment for children.
Under clause 16, an application for a parentage order must be supported by an independent counsellor's report
as to whether the order is in the best interests of the child and the reasons for that opinion. This report will assist
the court in determining whether to make the order. The bill does not impose pre-conditions in relation to the
gender of intended parents, nor their relationship status—apart from a requirement that if two people enter into a surrogacy arrangement as intended parents, they must be a couple.
Parentage orders are open to same-sex and de facto couples. Also, there is no restriction on the form of
conception that may be used in a surrogacy arrangement for which a parentage order will be available. There
are two key reasons for this approach. First, the Government generally agrees with the principle, endorsed by
the majority of the Legislative Council Standing Committee on Law and Justice, of minimal State intervention in
these matters. Legislation should not prescribe what form families should take. Secondly, the fact is that children
are born into surrogacy arrangements involving same-sex, single and unmarried parents, with varying forms of
conception. Those children deserve the benefits that will flow from a parentage order as much as any other child.
There are many diverse forms of family and it is necessary, and in the best interests of children in particular, to
deal with this reality. However, importantly, the bill creates several safeguards aimed at protecting the wellbeing
and interests of the child and the parties to the surrogacy arrangement. As a starting point, clause 21 provides
that an order can only be made where this is in the best interests of the child. Clauses 22 and 23 provide that an
order cannot be made in relation to a commercial surrogacy arrangement or an arrangement reached after
Clauses 24 to 36 impose further pre-conditions to the grant of a parentage order. They include the following. The
parties must obtain counselling and legal advice before entering into the arrangement, to ensure that they
understand the social, psychological and legal implications of doing so. The arrangement must be in writing. This
requirement aims to focus the parties on the complexity and the potential outcomes of the arrangement. The
birth mother must have been at least 25 years old when she entered into the surrogacy arrangement, to ensure
that she has sufficient maturity to grasp its implications. However, in respect of arrangements entered into before
the bill commences, it is sufficient if the birth mother is 18 years old.
The consent of the birth parents to the making of the parentage order is required. If a birth parent withholds
consent, the order cannot be made. This is also consistent with the existing position that surrogacy
arrangements are unenforceable. The intended parents must have been at least 18 years old at the time of entry
into the surrogacy arrangement. The child must be living with the intended parents at the time of the hearing;
demonstrating the willingness of the birth parents to hand the child to the intended parents and the intended
parents' willingness to accept care of the child. The parties must have provided information about the surrogacy
to the Director General of Health to be recorded on the register administered under the Assisted Reproductive
Technology Act 2007, and the birth must have been registered. This ensures that there is a record of the
circumstances of the birth, which may be important to the child later in life, and underpins their right to know
about their biological inheritance.
The bill also requires for a parentage order to be granted that there must have been a "medical or social need"
for the surrogacy arrangement. This requirement restricts the grant of parentage orders to surrogacy
arrangements that have been entered into because the intended parent or parents would not otherwise be able
to have children. To meet this requirement a woman, single or as part of a couple, who seeks to become a
parent through surrogacy, must be unable to conceive or carry a child on medical grounds or likely to conceive a
child affected by a genetic condition or disorder passed down by her. A single male or a male couple will
automatically meet the requirement of "medical or social need'', on the basis that men in such situations cannot
conceive a child without the assistance of another party.
Clause 17 gives the court the power to dispense with certain pre-conditions in exceptional circumstances,
always subject to the best interests of the child. However, the court will not be able to dispense with the
requirements that the agreement is not commercial or that there be a pre-conception surrogacy arrangement.
Nor can the court dispense with the requirement that birth parents consent, except in very limited circumstances,
such as where a birth parent has died or has lost capacity. The court will be able to make parentage orders also
in respect of arrangements entered into before the Act commences, extending the benefits of this reform to
children born into existing arrangements.
Some of the pre-conditions to the grant of these orders will not be as strict, since the parties will not have been
aware of the conditions they needed to comply with at the time of entry into the arrangement. However, some of
the requirements that will still apply are that the arrangement cannot be commercial and must have been entered
into before conception, the birth mother must have been at least 18 years old when the arrangement was made,
and the child must be under 18 years old and lawfully living with the intended parents. There will be a two-year
window following commencement of these laws in which to seek orders in respect of existing arrangements,
aimed at providing certainty for the parties and a stable and secure family situation for children.
The bill also provides for closed-court hearings and, in part 4, restricted access to court records and a restriction
on the publication of identifying details to the public without a person's consent. These provisions aim to protect
the privacy of parties to surrogacy arrangements and to protect the child from possible stigmatisation. Clause 42
provides that a parentage order may be discharged where it was obtained by fraud, duress or other means,
where consent to the order was given for fee or reward, or for another exceptional reason.
Schedule 2 to the bill includes consequential amendments to the Interpretation Act 1987, the Property
(Relationships) Act 1984, the Relationships Register Act 2010, the Succession Act 2006 and the Workplace
Injury Management and Workers Compensation Act 1998. The majority of these amendments relate to how
family relationships are determined at law. For example, where a person dies intestate amendments to the
Succession Act 2006 have the effect that if a parentage order names that person as a child's parent, they will be
treated as the child's legal parent for the purposes of distribution of the estate. These amendments ensure that
the practical benefits and implications of a transfer of parentage flow through to other areas of law. The bill also
amends the Status of Children Act 1996 to make it clear that the parentage presumptions in that Act do not
impact on the effect of these parentage orders.
The Government believes that the children of surrogacy arrangements should have access to information about
the circumstances of their birth and genetic history. This is important for the child's psychological wellbeing and
sense of identity, allowing them to avoid "genealogical bewilderment". It may also be important in terms of the
child's future health and medical treatment. While counselling will usually emphasise the importance of intended
parents being open with a child about their birth mother and genetic origins, the bill nevertheless provides
safeguards for affected children. The bill contains two mechanisms for accessing information about surrogacy
arrangements and the affected parties.
Once a parentage order has been made, amendments to the Births, Deaths and Marriages Act 1995 have the
effect that new birth certificates will refer only to the intended parents. However, the original birth certificate will
remain available to the affected parties and to the child once he or she reaches 18 years of age. Also, once the
child is 18, any new birth certificate for which he or she applies will attach an addendum stating that further
information is available. These provisions aim to ensure that children have access to information about the
circumstances of their birth, but also to ensure they have sufficient maturity to cope with any new information
about this. However, birth certificates will record only some details of the legal birth parents.
To ensure that other important information is recorded, the bill also expands the existing register for recording
the information of gamete donors under the Assisted Reproductive Technology Act 2007 to apply to surrogacy
situations. When children born into surrogacy situations reach adulthood, they will be entitled to access the
information on the register. A birth parent or gamete provider will also be able to access non-identifying
information about the child or identifying information to which a child consents once he or she reaches
The bill, in item [4] of schedule 2, also amends the Assisted Reproductive Technology Act 2007 to impose an
additional requirement on the use of assisted reproductive technology for surrogacy cases. The treating clinic
must, before providing treatment, receive and take into account a report from an independent counsellor
assessing the suitability of parties to the arrangement. This provision implements a recommendation of the
Legislative Council standing committee, which was concerned that counsellors' recommendations about people's
suitability for surrogacy arrangements should not be influenced by any form of financial dependence on ART
Commercial surrogacy will remain a criminal offence and surrogacy arrangements will remain unenforceable, as
is currently the case under the Assisted Reproductive Technology Act 2007. This offence aims to prevent the
commercialisation of human reproduction. As the Standing Committee of Attorneys-General noted in its 2009
discussion paper, "commercial surrogacy commodifies the child and the surrogate mother, and risks the
exploitation of poor families for the benefit of rich ones". However, a new provision has been inserted to
implement a recommendation of the Legislative Council standing committee. This will allow parties to enforce an
obligation under the arrangement to pay the birth mother's reasonable surrogacy costs. Those costs include the
reasonable costs of becoming or trying to become pregnant, as well as the costs of a pregnancy or birth, or a
surrogacy arrangement. A list of costs that meet this description is included for the sake of clarity.
Advertising in relation to commercial surrogacy will remain an offence, and will be extended to altruistic
surrogacy arrangements where the advertisement is made for fee or reward. Such advertisements may increase
the risk of surrogacy arrangements that are, in fact, commercial. For advertisements about altruistic surrogacy, a
lower maximum penalty will apply due to the lesser seriousness of such advertisements. This bill is an important
step towards creating legal certainty for people who turn to surrogacy arrangements because they are otherwise
unable to have children, and towards protecting the interests of children born into surrogacy arrangements. It is
also intended to encourage those who turn to such arrangements to follow processes designed to ensure they
thoroughly understand the psychological, social and legal complexity of their decisions, and the lasting impact
those decisions will have on the child yet to be born. I commend the bill to the House.

NSW: error

In an earlier post I said that the NSW Surrogacy Act was yet to receive Royal assent. That was wrong. it has already received Royal assent. It is likely that the changes will take early, such as December.

NSW: new altruistic surrogacy laws

NSW Parliament passed the Surrogacy Act 2010 last week, which for the first time regulates altruistic surrogacy. Altruistic surrogacy is currently legal in NSW, but is unregulated. Unless an adoption order is obtained, it is not possible to change parentage.

It will be possible to obtain a parentage order in NSW once the new laws take effect, likely in December or January. This means that the custody and guardianship of the child (and the names of the parents on the birth certificate) will be able to be changed from the surrogate (and her partner) to the intended parent or parents.

The Surrogacy Act is yet to obtain Royal assent, and is due to commence on a date to be proclaimed. Given the NSW election is to be held in March and the caretaker convention stopping Government business before that, it is likely that the laws will take effect very soon.

Some key features of the Act are:

  • It takes a similar approach to Qld and the ACT. Like rail gauges, unfortunately, the approaches are not identical. Anyone contemplating cross-border surrogacies must not make the mistake that the laws are the same. They are not. They need to get advice from those familiar with the different regimes in each state. I have advised clients about the laws about surrogacy in every state and territory.
  • The Act does not discriminate. Single, married, straight, gay or lesbian- all can be intended parents.
  • There is the light hand of Government. Unlike Victoria and WA, there is no government regulator overseeing all. Instead intending parents and surrogates are left to get on with the job of going ahead with surrogacies, provided that the framework in the Act is complied with. Non-compliance means that a clinic won't treat and that a parentage order won't be made.
  • Commercial surrogacy is banned. Payments can be made to the surrogate for things such as medical expenses, but these have to be carefully dealt with, so that the surrogacy is not turned from altruistic (and approved) to commercial (non-approved and criminal).
  • The surrogate must be 25 years or above (unless it is an arrangement entered into before the Act commences).
  • The intending parents must be 18 or above, although if under 25 there needs to be evidence from a counsellor that they are mature.
  • For intending parents who are men- a medical or social need needs to be established to obtain a parentage order. 
  • For intending parents who are women- while a social need might be established, a medical need must be established. For a lesbian couple, this means that a medical need has to be shown for both intending parents.
  • For all intents and purposes a complying surrogacy arrangement is needed. While a complying surrogacy arrangement is not required, without it treatment is unlikely to be provided, and a parentage order cannot be obtained. 
  • Everyone must have obtained counselling and legal advice before signing up the surrogacy arrangement.
  • The surrogate, her partner, and the intended parent/s must agree to the orders being made.
  • The surrogacy arrangement must be signed before the child is conceived. Like Queensland there is no definition of conception- which means that until there is a ruling, most likely to be in Queensland first, there remains some doubt as to whether embryos created before the arrangement was signed constitute conception. If so, the parentage order cannot be made.
  • The parentage order is made in the Supreme Court.
  • The intended parents must live in NSW. The surrogate can live anywhere.
  • Surrogates and intended parents can only be found by word of mouth. Advertising, including notices on the web, is an offence.
The legal process has two steps:


Before the pregnancy, the surrogacy arrangement is signed up.


After the child is born, and handed over, everyone goes to court so that a parentage order can be made to change legal parentage of the child.

Anyone contemplating surrogacy should get knowledgable legal advice first!

Saturday, November 20, 2010

Qld's first surrogacy case

The Queensland Children's Court has decided the first case of its kind under Queensland's Surrogacy Act, making a parentage order in favour of a gay couple.

The child was born on May 11, just before the commencement of the new laws. The Surrogacy Act allows for an amnesty period of up to 2 years for altruistic surrogacies entered into before the Act started. This case was one of those.

In the case, known as BLH and HM v SJW and MW, the first applicant (the biological father of the child) and the first respondent came to a verbal agreement so that the first respondent would become the surrogate for the first applicant's intended child. This agreement was made in consultation with the second applicant and the second respondent, who were fully advised. 

The agreement provided:
(a) the first respondent agreed to become pregnant with the first applicant's child with the intention that a child born as a result of the pregnancy would be treated as a child not of her but of the applicants;
(b) she and the second respondent agreed to relinquish to the applicants custody and guardianship of any child born as a result of the pregnancy;
(c) the applicants agreed to become permanently responsible for the custody and guardianship of any child born as a result of the pregnancy;
(d) the applicants would meet the first respondent's surrogacy and legal costs;
(e) the agreement is not a commercial surrogacy agreement, it is purely altruistic and designed to allow the applicants the opportunity to have a family; and
(f) if possible, following the birth of the child the parties would take all steps and sign all documents necessary to apply to the Childrens Court of Queensland for an order transferring the parentage of the child to the applicants.

Judge Irwin stated:
The applicants attended at the hospital for the birth. On the following day the applicants took the child home ... The child has lived permanently with the applicants since that time. They have provided for the child's day-to-day needs, including his physical, emotional, psychological and development needs.

After the child was born, the parties entered into a written surrogacy arrangement, reflecting what had already been agreed. 

His Honour found that the surrogacy arrangement was for the wellbeing and in the best interests of the child:

I am satisfied that this is the case because, as set out in the evidence before me, for example, [in the surrogate's affidavit] it is deposed that it is believed that it is in the child's best interests that a parentage order be made so he has the same status, protection and support available to him as any other child not born of such an arrangement or born of a post-commencement surrogacy arrangement. 

For example, his rights under succession law and in relation to financial support.
Further, the [surrogate] believes that the child will suffer social disadvantage should his birth certificate not record the applicants as his parents, for example, when enrolling the child in school or other activities or when making decisions in relation to his health and welfare, which would ordinarily be made by a recognised legal guardian...

The explanatory notes to the Surrogacy Bill 2009 suggest that these are the primary reasons why the Parliament has legislated for and provided a two year window of opportunity for applications to be filed in relation to children born as a result of pre-commencement surrogacy arrangements. The explanatory notes confirm the Parliamentary intent that
pre-commencement children have the right to the same status, support and protection available as any other children.
As is submitted on behalf of the applicants, pages 10-12 of the explanatory notes provide insight into the reasons why a transfer of parentage is beneficial. For example, it is stated on page 10 of the explanatory notes:
"If the parent-child relationship is not legally recognised the child will have reduced rights or entitlements than other children within the community. These include reduced rights under succession law, both under intestacy and if contesting a will of the intended parent under the family maintenance provisions of the Succession Act 1981. Also, if the parentage of the child is not transferred to the intended parents the child may have a claim against the estate of the birth parents in certain circumstances. This creates uncertainty for the birth parents, particularly in relation to the distribution of their estate to other children they may have."
Further, at page 11 of the notes it is stated:

"The Bill allows the parentage order to be registered with the Births, Deaths and Marriages Registry so that the birth certificate will show the intended parents as parents of the child. Recording details of the intended parents on the child's entry on the birth register will confirm the legal status of the child and avoid any social disadvantage to the child.
There could be social disadvantage if the child's birth certificate does not show the intended parents as the child's parents. This could occur in situations when the child is to be registered for school or with a sporting club that requires lodgment of the child's birth certificate. Further, this may affect the ability of the intended parents to engage with service providers, health professionals or others involved with the child because they are not recognised as the child's legal guardians."

Further, it is submitted on behalf of the applicants that page 15 of the explanatory notes provide insight into the Parliamentary intent concerning children born of a pre-commencement surrogacy arrangement. It is noted that it had been found that there were already some children who were born as a result of a surrogacy arrangement in Queensland. 

It is stated that a child born under such an arrangement does not enjoy the same legal certainty and status of other children and it was for these reasons that the Bill allows intended parents of a child who is born before the Bill commences or born pursuant to a surrogacy agreement entered into before the Bill commences to apply to the Court for a parentage order. In particular, it is stated:
"The retrospective application of the Bill is important to ensure that all children experience the same status and legal certainty regardless of the circumstances that resulted in their birth."

For these reasons I find that in accordance with section 63(4)(a) of the Act it is for the well-being and in the best interests of the child, who was born as a result of the pre-commencement surrogacy arrangement, to dispense with the requirements that I have identified.


The case is a useful first step in decisions about how the Surrogacy Act 2010 Qld will take effect.

A feature of any altruistic surrogacy  now entered into Queensland is that it requires a written surrogacy arrangement to be in place before the child was conceived and after legal advice and counselling steps have occurred.. If the facts were to be repeated, with the child conceived after 1 June 2010, the applicants could not have obtained a parentage order. It is vital that anyone contemplating surrogacy get expert advice- it is a process that can contain legal traps.